Chapter 17 Transportation Contracts
Section One General Provisions
Article 288 A transportation contract is a contract whereby the carrier carries passengers or cargoes from the starting place of carriage to the agreed destination, and the passenger, consignor or consignee pays for the ticket-fare or freight.
Article 289 A carrier engaged in public transportation may not refuse the normal and reasonable carriage request of a passenger or consignor.
Article 290 The carrier shall safely carry the passengers or cargoes to the agreed destination within the agreed time or within a reasonable time.
Article 291 The carrier shall carry the passengers or cargoes to the agreed destination via the agreed route or the customary carriage route.
Article 292 A passenger, a consignor or a consignee shall pay the ticket-fare or freight. Where the carrier fails to carry the passengers or the cargoes via the agreed or customary carriage route, thereby increasing the ticket-fare or freight, the passenger, consignor or consignee may refuse to pay any increased portion thereof.
Section Two Passenger Transportation contracts
Article 293 A passenger transportation contract is established upon the carrier's delivery of the passenger ticket to the passenger, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties or there are other transaction practices.
Article 294 The passenger shall board the means of transportation with a valid passenger ticket. If the passenger boards without a ticket, exceeds the distance paid for, takes a higher class or higher berth than booked, or boards with an invalid ticket, he shall make up the payment for an appropriate ticket, and the carrier may charge an additional payment in accordance with the relevant provisions. Where the passenger fails to pay the ticket-fare, the carrier may refuse to carry.
Article 295 Where the passenger is unable to board the means of transportation at the time stated on the passenger ticket due to any reason attributable to himself, he shall undergo the formalities for ticket cancellation and refund or for ticket modification within the agreed period. Where the passenger fails to do so within the time period, the carrier may refuse to refund the ticket-fare, and no longer bear the obligation of carriage.
Article 296 In the course of carriage, the passenger's carry-on luggage shall be within the agreed limit of quantity. Where the luggage exceeds the agreed limit of quantity, the additional luggage shall be checked in.
Article 297 The passenger may not bring with him or pack in the luggage such dangerous articles as are flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive as well as those that might endanger the safety of life and property on board the means of transportation or other contraband articles.
Where the passenger violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may unload, destroy or turn over to the relevant authority the contraband articles. Where the passenger insists on carrying in person or placing in his luggage the contraband articles, the carrier shall refuse to carry.
Article 298 The carrier shall timely inform the passenger of any major causes hindering the normal carriage and the matters which shall be noted for purpose of safety carriage.
Article 299 The carrier shall carry the passenger according to the time and the carriage schedule stated on the passenger ticket. Where the carrier delays in carriage, it shall, upon request by the passenger, either arrange the passenger to take other flights or numbers or refund the ticket-fare.
Article 300 Where the carrier unilaterally changes the means of transportation, thereby lowering the standards of service, it shall, upon request by the passenger, refund the ticket-fare or lower the price of the ticket; where the service standards are enhanced, no additional ticket-fare shall be charged.
Article 301 In the course of carriage, the carrier shall gives its best efforts to assist the passenger who is seriously ill, or who is giving birth to a child or whose life is at risk.
Article 302 The carrier shall be liable for damages in case of injury or death of the passenger in the course of carriage, except where such injury or death is attributable to the passenger's own health, or the carrier proves that such injury or death is caused by the passenger's intentional misconduct or gross negligence.
The provisions in the preceding paragraph apply to a passenger who is exempted from buying a ticket or holds a preferential ticket pursuant to the relevant provisions, or who is permitted by the carrier to be on board without a ticket.
Article 303 Where an article that the passenger takes with him on board is damaged or destroyed during the period of carriage, the carrier shall be liable for the damage if it has committed faults.
Where the passenger's check-in luggage is damaged or lost, the relevant provisions on the carriage of cargoes shall be applied.
Section Three Cargo Transportation contracts
Article 304 In undergoing the formalities for cargoes, the consignor shall precisely indicate to carrier the name of the consignee or the consignee by order, the name, nature weight, amount and the place for taking delivery of the cargoes, and other information necessary for cargo carriage.
Where the carrier suffers from damage due to untrue declaration or omission of important information by the consignor, the consignor shall be liable for damages.
Article 305 Where carriage of the cargo is subject to such procedures as examination and approval or inspection, the consignor shall submit to the carrier the documents of fulfillment of the relevant procedure.
Article 306 The consignor shall pack the cargo in the agreed manner. Where the packing manner is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, the provisions of Article 156 of this Law shall be applied.
Where the consignor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may refuse to carry.
Article 307 In consigning any dangerous articles which are inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, or radioactive, the consignor shall, in accordance with the provisions of the State on the carriage of dangerous articles, properly pack the dangerous articles and affix thereon signs and labels for dangerous articles, and shall submit the written papers relating to the number and measures of precaution to the carrier
If the consignor violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may refuse to carry, and may also take corresponding measures to avoid losses, expenses thus caused shall be borne by the consignor .
Article 308 Prior to carrier's delivery of the cargoes to the consignee, the consignor may request the carrier to suspend the carriage, return the cargoes, change the destination or deliver the cargoes to another consignee, but it shall compensate the carrier for any losses thus caused.
Article 309 Upon arrival of the cargoes, if the carrier has the knowledge of the consignee, it shall timely notify the consignee and the consignee shall timely take delivery. Where the consignee takes delivery exceeding the time limit, it shall pay such expenses as storage of the goods, etc.
Article 310 Upon taking delivery of the cargoes, the consignee shall inspect the cargoes at the agreed time. Where the time for inspection is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, the consignee shall inspect the cargo within a reasonable time limit. The consignee's failure to raise any objection on the quantity of, or any damage to, the cargoes within the agreed time limit or within a reasonable time limit is deemed prima facie evidence of delivery by the carrier in compliance with the description in the transportation documents.
Article 311 The carrier is liable for damages in case of damage to or loss of the cargoes in the course of carriage, provided that it is not liable for damages if it proves that such damage to or loss of the cargoes is caused by force majeure, the intrinsic characteristics of the cargoes, reasonable depletion, or the fault of the consignor or consignee.
Article 312 Where the parties agree on the amount of damages in case of damage to or loss of the cargoes, the damages payable is the agreed amount; if the amount of damages is not agreed or the agreement is not clear, nor can it be determined in accordance with Article 61 of this Law, it shall be calculated on the basis of the prevailing market price at the destination when the cargoes are or ought to be delivered. Where a law or administrative regulation provides otherwise in respect of the measures for the calculation of damages and of the ceiling of the amount of damages, these provisions shall be applied.
Article 313 Where two or more carriers jointly carry the cargoes using the same means of transportation, the carrier contracting with the consignor shall be responsible for the whole course of carriage. Where the losses occurred at a particular segment, the carrier contracting with the consignor and the carrier for such segment are jointly and severally liable.
Article 314 Where the cargoes are lost in the course of carriage due to force majeure, if the freight has not been collected, the carrier may not request the payment thereof; if the freight has been collected, the consignor may request the refund of the freight.
Article 315 Where the consignor or consignee fails to pay the freight, storage fees and other carriage expenses, the carrier is entitled to lien on the relevant carried cargoes, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
Article 316 Where the consignee is not clear or refuses to take delivery of the cargoes without justified reasons, the carrier may place the cargo in escrow according to the provisions of Article 101 of this Law.
Section Four Multi-modal Transportation contract
Article 317 A multi-modal carriage operator is responsible for performing, or arranging for performance of, the multi-modal transportation contract, and it enjoys the rights and assumes the obligations of a carrier throughout the course of carriage.
Article 318 The multi-modal carriage operator and the segment carriers may enter into agreements on their respective duties concerning each segment, provided that the obligations of the multi-modal carriage operator with respect to the entire course of carriage are not affected by any such agreement.
Article 319 Upon receipt of the cargo delivered by the consignor, the multi-modal carriage operator shall issue thereto a multi-modal carriage document. The multi-modal carriage document may either be assignable or non-assignable as required by the consignor.
Article 320 Where the multi-modal carriage operator sustains any loss due to the fault of the consignor in the course of consigning the cargo, the consignor shall be liable for damages notwithstanding its subsequent assignment of the multi-modal carriage document.
Article 321 Where damage to or loss of the cargo occurred within a particular segment of the course of a multi-modal carriage, the multi-modal carriage operator's liability for damages and any limitation thereon are governed by the applicable transportation law of the jurisdiction which such segment is under. Where the segment in which the cargo is damaged or lost cannot be determined, the liability for damages shall be borne in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter.
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